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KARACHI AGREEMENT: 1949

Text of Agreement between India and Pakistan done at Karachi on July 27, 1949 to reduce tensions in South Asia
I. AGREEMENTS BETWEEN INDIA AND PAKISTAN
The Karachi Agreement
July 27, 1949 (Karachi)
A. Considering:
1. That the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan, in its letter dated 2 July 1949, invited the Governments of India and Pakistan to send fully authorized military representatives to meet jointly in Karachi under auspices of the Commission’s Truce Sub-Committee to establish a cease-fire line in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, mutually agreed upon by the Governments of India and Pakistan;
2. That the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan in its letter stated that “the meetings will be for military purposes; political issues will not be considered,” and that “they will be conducted without prejudice to negotiations concerning the truce agreement;”
3. That in the same letter the United Nations Commission on India and Pakistan further stated that: “The cease-fire is a complement of the suspension of hostilities, which falls within the provisions of part I of the resolution of 13 August 1948, and can be considered separately from the question relating to part II, of the same resolution;”
4. That the Governments of India and Pakistan, in their letters dated 7 July 1949 to the Chairman of the Commission, accepted the Commission’s invitation to the military conference in Karachi;
B. The delegations of India and Pakistan, duly authorized, have reached the following agreement:
1. Under provisions of part I of the resolution of 13 August 1948, and as a complement of the suspension of hostilities in the State of Jammu and Kashmir on I January 1949, a cease-fire line is established.
2. The cease-fire line runs from Manawar in the south, north to Keran, and from Keran east to the glacier area, as follows:
(a) The line from Manawar to the south bank of the Jhelum River at Urusa (inclusive to India) is the line now defined by factual positions about which there is agreement between both parties. Where there has hitherto not been agreement, the line shall be as follows:
(i) In the Patrana area: Kohel (inclusive to Pakistan) north along the Khuwala Kas Nullah up to Point 2276 (inclusive to India), thence to Kirni (inclusive to India).
(ii) Khamba, Pir Satwan, Point 3150 and Point 3606 are inclusive to India; thence the line runs to the factual position at Bagla Gala, thence to the factual position at point 3300.
(iii) In the area south of Uri the positions of Pir Kanthi and Leda Gali are inclusive to Pakistan.
(b) From the north hank of the Jhelum River the line runs from a Point opposite the village of Urusa (NL 972109), thence north following the Ballaseth Da Nar Nullah (inclusive to Pakistan} up to NL 973140 thence north-east to Chhota Qazinag (Point 10657, inclusive to India) thence to NM010180 thence to NM037210 thence to Point 11825 (NM 025354, inclusive to Pakistan) thence to Tumari Gali (to be shared by both sides posts to be established 500 yards on either side of the Gali), thence straight west to the north-west through the first “R” of the Burji Nar to north of Gadori, thence straight west to just north of Point 9870, thence along the black line north of Bijidhar to north of Batarasi, thence to just south of Sudpura, thence due north to the Kathaqazinag Nullah thence along the Nullah to its junction with the Grangar Nullah, thence along the latter Nullah of Kajnwala Pathra (inclusive to India), thence across the Danna ridge (following the factual positions} to Richmar Gali (inclusive to India), thence north to Thanda Katha Nullah, thence north to the Kishanganga River. The line then follows the Kishanganga River up to a point situated between Jargi and Tarban, thence (all inclusive to Pakistan), to Bankoran thence north-east to Khori, thence to the hill feature 8930 (in Square 9053), thence straight north to Point 10164 (in Square 9057), thence to Point 10323 (in Square 9161 ), thence north-east straight to Guthur, thence to Bhutpathra, thence to NL980707, thence following the Bugina Nullah to the .junction with the Kishanganga River at Point 4739, Thereafter the line follows the Kishanganga River to Keran and onwards to Point 4996 (NL 975818).
(c) From Point 4996 the line follows (al1 inclusive to Pakistan) the Jamgar Nullah eastward to Point 12124 to Katware to Point 6678, then north-east to Sarian (Point 11279) to Point 11837, to Point 13090 to Point 1264l, thence east-again to Point 11142, thence to Dhakki, thence to Point 11415, thence to point 10301 thence to Point 7507, thence to Point 10685, thence to Point 8388, thence south-east to Point 11812. Thence the line runs (all inclusive to India} to Point 13220, thence across the river to the east to Point 13449 (Durmat), thence to Point 14586 (Anzbari), thence to Point 13554, thence to Milestone 45 on the Burzil Nullah, thence to the east to Ziankal (Point 12909}, thence to the south-east to Point 1114, thence to Point 12216, thence to Point 12867, thence to the east to Point 11264, thence to Karo (Point 14985), thence to Point 14014, thence to Point 12089, thence following the track to Point 12879. From there the line runs to Point 13647 (Karobal Gali, to be shared by both sides), The cease-fire line runs thence throughout Retagah Chhish ( Point 15316 ), thence through Point 15889, thence through Point 17392, thence through Point 16458, thence to Marpo La (to be shared by both sides), thence to Point 17561, thence through Point 17352, thence through Point 18400, thence through Point 16760, thence to (inclusive to India} Dalunang.
(d) From Dalunang eastwards the cease-fire line will follow the general line Point 15495, Ishmam, Manus, Gangam, Gunderman, Point 13620, Junkar (Point 17628), Marmak, Natsara, Shangruti (Point 17531 ), Chorbat La (Point 16700), Chalunka (on the Shyok River), Khor, thence north to the glaciers. This portion of the cease-fire line shall be demarcated in detail on the basis of the factual position as of 27th July 1949 by the local commanders, assisted by the United Nations Military Observers.
C. The cease-fire line descried above shall be drawn on a one-inch map (where available) and then be verified mutually on the ground by local commanders on each side with the assistance of the United Nations Military Observers, so as to eliminate any no-man’s land. In the event that the local commanders are unable to reach an agreement, the matter shall be referred to the Commission’s Military Adviser, whose decision shall be final. After this verification the Military Adviser will issue to each High Command a map on which will be marked the definitive cease-fire line.
D. No troops shall be stationed or operate in the areas of the Burzil Nullah from south of Minimarg to the cease-fire line, This area is bounded on the west by the ridge leading north-east from Dudgaikal to Point 13071, to Point 9447, to Point 13466, to Point 13463, and on the east by the ridge running from Point 12470, to Point 11608, to Point 13004, to Point 13976, to Point 13450. Pakistan may, however, post troops on the Western [sic] of the above ridges to cover the approaches to Kamri Bal Pass.
E. In any dispositions that may be adopted in consequence of the present agreement troops will remain at least 500 yards from the cease-fire line except where the Kishanganga River constitutes the line. Points, which have been shown as inclusive to party, may be occupied by that party, but the troops of the other party shall remain at a distance of 500 yards.
F. Both sides shall be free to adjust their defensive positions behind the cease-fire line as determined in paragraphs A through E, inclusive subject to no wire or mines being used when new, bunkers and defenses are constructed. There shall be no increase of forces or strengthening of defenses in area where no major adjustments are involved by the determination of the cease-fire line.
G. The action permitted by paragraph F above shall not be accompanied or accomplished by the introduction of additional military potential by either side into the State of Jammu and Kashmir,
H. Except as modified by paragraphs A to G, inclusive, above, the military agreements between the two High Commands relating to the cease-fire of 1st January 1949 shall continue to remain operative.
I. The United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan will station observers where it deems necessary.
J. The delegations shall refer this agreement to their respective Governments for ratification; the documents of ratification shall be deposited with the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan not later than 31 July 1949.
K. A period of thirty days from the date of ratification shall be allowed to each side to vacate the areas at present occupied by them beyond the cease-fire line as now determined. Before the expiration of this thirty-day period there shall be no forward movement into areas to be taken over by either side pursuant to this agreement, except by mutual agreement between local commanders.
In faith whereof the undersigned sign this document in three original copies.
Done in Karachi on 27 July 1949.
[Signed:] S.M. Shrinagesh
Republic of India

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