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TROOP WITHDRAWAL AGREEMENT: 1966

Following India-Pakistan war of 1965, this agreement was signed by Chief of Army Staff, India and Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Army on January 22, 1966 on withdrawal of troops within five days
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The agreement signed in New Delhi on January 22nd, 1966 between the Chief of Army Staff, India, and the Commander-in-Chief, Pakistan Army, for disengagement and withdrawal of troops for the disengagement of troops within five days, the dismantlement of defenses in occupied territory in 21 days thereafter and the complete withdrawal of troops by 25th February 1966, as provided for in the Tashkent Declaration.
The disengagement in the plains areas, generally, will be by withdrawal by either side to a distance of 1000 yards from the line of actual control. In hill areas the two sides will keep to the features in their possession, except where they are considered too close. In such case mutually agreed withdrawal will be arranged by local commanders.
Apart from providing for dismantling of defense works the agreement provides for continuing of existing restrictions on flights of aircraft and disallows firing of weapons or explosives within 10,000 meters of the line of actual control. The good offices of UNMOGIP and UNIPOM will be utilised in achieving the disengagement and dismantling of defenses.
While withdrawals will be completed by 25th February 1966, everywhere, earlier sector-wise withdrawal is envisaged wherever dismantling of defenses has been completed. On completion of withdrawals the Ground Rules 1961 will again become operative.
The agreement provides for meeting of Sector Commanders and further meetings between the Chief of Army Staff, India, and the Commander-in-Chief, Pakistan Army, to resolve any points of dispute and for the use of the good offices of Maj. Gen. Marambio in case of need.
The agreement further provides for meeting of local commanders in the Eastern sector to reduce tension by arranged withdrawals, as considered necessary. It also lays down that Border Security Forces of either side will not open fire across the border, and where an incident of firing takes place it will be investigated jointly by representatives of the two countries. Liaison will be maintained between the commanders as provided for in the Indo-East Pakistan Border Ground Rules, and quarterly meetings will be held to assess the working of the agreement in practice.
The following is the text of the Agreement:
INTRODUCTION
This agreement is in Four parts:
Part I – Procedure concerning the immediate disengagement of troops and reduction of tension;
Part II – Procedure concerning the withdrawal of troops from the occupied areas;
Part III- Procedure concerning reduction of tension in the Eastern Sector;
Part IV- General Points.
PART I
DISENGAGEMENT OF TROOPS AND REDUCTION OF TENSION
Phase – I
Both forces will withdraw 1,000 yards from the line of actual control in sectors as specified below:
(a) RAJASTHAN/SIND
(b) AMRITSAR/LAHORE
(c) JAMMU/SIALKOT
(d) AKHNUR/CHHAMB (from River CHENAB NW 8061 to MAWA WALI KHAD NW 7710).
In all other sectors including sectors divided by the 1949 Cease Fire Line, troops will continue to hold their respective picquets as by so doing they will be automatically be separated from each other. The only exception to this will be where, in hilly terrain, opposing forces are at present considered to be too close to each other, each side will withdraw to a distance to be mutually agreed upon by the local commanders not below the rank of Brigadier.
[Note: In the Amritsar-Lahore sector, this 1000 yards withdrawal will be modified so that Pakistani troops who are actually on the West bank of the BRB Canal and Indian troops who are on the East bank of the BRB Canal facing each other will withdraw all armed personnel off the embankment to a distance of 200 yards on each side.
Unarmed personnel may, however, live move and work in this area.
The same principle will apply in Sulaimanki-Fazilka Sector, Hussainwala Sector and Khem Karan Sector.] After the withdrawal in this phase no new defenses of any kind will be prepared in occupied territory.
There will be no movement of armed military, paramilitary or police personnel either armed or unarmed within the demilitarised zone and no civilian personnel will be permitted within it by either side.
The period for completion of this phase will be five days.
Phase – II
In this phase both sides will remove and nullify all defenses which will include the:
(a) Lifting of mines; and
(b) Dismantling of all other defense works, less permanent defense structures constructed of steel and cement.
The period for completing this phase will be twenty-one days, which will commence immediately after the five-day period mentioned in Para 5.
Working parties for this purpose will be found by unarmed military personnel in uniform. No civilian or civil Labour will be used for these tasks.
While every effort will be made to dismantle all defense works within the specified period, where owing to weather and other conditions it is not possible to complete this, the un-cleared areas so left will be clearly marked and a sketch of these given to the other side.
There will be no firing of weapons or use of explosives within 10,000 meters of the line of actual control. Where explosives have to be used to dismantle defense works, this will only be done under supervision as specified later and after due intimation to the other side.
The present agreement affecting restriction on flights of aircraft will continue to apply.
To ensure that the action agreed to in PART I above is being implemented in letter and in sprit, the good offices of UNMOGIP and UNIPOM will be utilised. In the event of a disagreement, their decision will be final and binding to both sides.
PART – II
WITHDRAWAL OF TROOPS FROM OCCUPIED AREAS
After the dismantling of defenses has taken place, all troops, paramilitary forces and armed police who are now on other side of the international border and Cease Fire Line, will be withdrawn. This withdrawal will be completed by 25th February 1966. If in any particular sector or part of a sector, the dismantling of defenses has been completed earlier than the last date specified, withdrawal may be sector wise if mutually agreed to.
During this withdrawal, there will be no follow up by civilians, armed military, and paramilitary or police personnel until 25th February 1966. Only unarmed military personnel at a strength mutually agreed upon at the sector level may move into these unoccupied areas for normal police duties (see paragraph 16 below).
After troops of both sides have crossed into their own territory, the procedure, which was being followed by Pakistan and India before 5th August 1965, for the security of the international border and the Cease Fire Line, will apply. Attention is drawn to Ground Rules 1961 for West Pakistan/Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat (India).
It is essential that under all circumstances troops must move out of occupied areas by 25th February 1966, even if the dismantling of defenses and lifting of mines have not been completed.
For immediate settlement of any points of dispute that may arise, sector commanders not below the rank of Major General will be designated by name and appointment both by India and Pakistan who will meet to settle the differences. Telephone or R/T communication will be established between these designated sector commanders and will be permanently manned.
Any matter on which there is disagreement will be referred to the C-in-C, Pakistan Army, and COAS, India, for their joint decision. If the issue is still not resolved by them the good offices of Major General T. Marambio will be utilised and his decision will be final and binding on both sides.
PART – III
REDUCTION OF TENSION IN THE EASTERN SECTOR
The limit of withdrawal in the Eastern Sector will be left to local commanders not below the rank of Major General to mutually decide where necessary, in consultation with the civil authorities concerned. Both sides will arrive at a working agreement as soon as possible.
Border Security Forces consisting of armed paramilitary units, police or any other irregular forces of both sides will not open fire across the border under any circumstances.
Any encroachments across the border will be dealt with through apprehension of personnel concerned and thereafter handing them over to civil authorities.
In any case where firing takes place across the border it will be investigated on the spot by a joint team consisting of border personnel from both sides within 24 hours of occurrence. Brigade Commanders/DIG’s responsible for this investigation will be designated by name and appointment sector wise for West Bengal, Assam and Tripura by India and for the adjoining areas of East Pakistan by Pakistan.
Liaison between commanders and telephone communications at various levels will be established as given in Para 12 and 13 of the Ground Rules for Indo-East Pakistan border.
To ensure that the above agreement is fully implemented, quarterly meetings will take place between Army and Police authorities of India and Pakistan, alternately in India and Pakistan, to assess the extent to which the agreement is working in practice.
These are supplement to the ground rules formulated by the Military Sub-Committee of the Indian and Pakistani delegations on 20th October 1959.
PART IV
GENERAL POINTS
In order to resolve any problems that may arise in the implementation of this agreement and to further maintain friendly relations between the two countries, the C-in-C Pakistan and the COAS India will meet from time to time. The meetings will be held alternately in India and Pakistan and will be initiated by the respective Governments concerned.
Ground rules to implement this withdrawal agreement in the Western Sector will be formulated by Lieutenant General Bakhtiar Rana-Pakistan, and Lieutenant General Harbaksh Singh-India, under the Chairmanship of Major General T. Marambio as early as possible.
This agreement comes into effect as from 0600 hours IST/0630 hours WPT 25th January 1966.

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